Energy consumption for various types of physical loads; educational and methodological material on physical education

Human energy consumption and food intake[edit | edit code]

Main article: Metabolic adaptation to weight loss: implications for the athlete

Energy consumption of human muscles, organs and tissues depending on gender, age category and body weight Table of energy consumption of human organs and tissues

Total daily energy expenditure of a person

consists of a number of individual components. The largest component is energy expenditure at rest, this is energy expenditure on basal (basic) metabolism[1]. Another component is energy expenditure during activity. It in turn can be divided into:

  • energy expenditure for thermogenesis during sports exercise
  • energy expenditure for thermogenesis during non-exercise activities
  • energy loss due to the thermic effect of food

Metabolic rate

– dynamic quantity. Energy deficiency in the body and weight loss affect the body's energy metabolism. In particular, with active reduction of body weight, the total daily energy expenditure of a person decreases. In addition, weight loss reduces the volume of tissue involved in metabolism, and thereby reduces the overall metabolic rate[2][3].

Often, the amount by which total daily energy expenditure is reduced is greater than that calculated based on the amount by which total body weight is reduced. In a number of studies, this fact is explained by the body’s desire to restore normal (basic) body weight [4][5][6]. It is adaptive thermogenesis that can explain the occurrence of a plateau in weight loss, as well as the body’s predisposition to weight gain after stopping the diet.

Energy consumption during various physical activities

In addition, when body weight is reduced, the level of thermogenesis during exercise decreases[7][8][9]. Obviously, for activities that require movement of the body, reducing total body mass will reduce the amount of energy required to perform the exercise. However, if an athlete uses weights to increase his weight to the original weight, the energy consumption for performing the exercise remains lower than it was before the reduction in body weight. It is assumed that this increase in muscle efficiency may be associated with hypothyroidism and hypoleptinemia, which accompany weight loss, which leads to a decrease in the respiratory quotient and an increase in the proportion of lipid metabolism [10].

Thermic effect of food

includes energy costs for food intake, absorption, metabolism and nutrient storage[11]. The thermic effect of food accounts for approximately 10% of total daily energy expenditure[12][13]. This proportion may vary depending on the type of diet. At the same time, the relative magnitude of the thermic effect of food does not change during energy deficiency in the body [14], despite the fact that with a low-calorie diet, naturally, the absolute value of the thermic effect of food will be lower than with a regular diet.

Energy expenditure for non-exercise activities

(daily activity) also decrease with the onset of energy deficiency[15]. There is evidence that the level of spontaneous physical activity decreases with a general energy deficit in the body, and may remain reduced for some time even after a return to normal food intake[16]. This factor may also contribute to weight gain after stopping a special diet. In general, to effectively reduce body weight, the level of energy intake must be determined based on individual energy expenditure during the day. In the context of weight loss, this process is complicated by the fact that energy expenditure is dynamic throughout the day. During weight loss, there is often a decrease in total energy expenditure (including energy expenditure during exercise and non-exercise activities), as well as overall metabolic rate and energy expenditure due to the thermic effect of food. As a result of the initiation of the process of adaptive thermogenesis, total energy expenditure is reduced by an amount greater than can be predicted based on the observed decrease in body weight. At the same time, the process of adaptive thermogenesis, as well as a decrease in total energy expenditure, is observed even after the cessation of active weight loss [17] [18]. These changes are due to the body's desire to minimize energy deficit, as well as prevent further weight loss.

To obtain ATP from energy substrates, the body requires a series of chemical reactions. In the case of aerobic metabolism, this process involves the movement of protons across the inner mitochondrial membrane. With the help of ATP synthase, the energy of protons is directed to the synthesis of ATP. At the same time, protons can leak through the inner membrane via uncoupling proteins (UCPs)[19]. In this case, oxygen consumption and oxidation of energy substrates occur, but ATP synthesis does not occur. Proton leakage is a fairly significant factor in the body’s energy consumption. For example, in rats it can account for 20-30% of the total energy expenditure for metabolism [20][21][22].

Obese people have lower amounts of brown fat and a reduced metabolic rate in brown fat cells. This has been shown to be associated with increased serotonin concentrations in peripheral tissues, including adipose tissue. Serotonin reduces energy expenditure and, as a result, can lead to obesity and diabetes.[23]

Features of nutrition at a distance during long runs (20 km or more)

During long runs, the body not only uses up energy reserves, but also loses electrolytes through sweat. Large losses of water lead to thickening of the blood and hemodynamic disturbances, which results in a sharp decrease in performance and the development of symptoms of fatigue during running or after the end of the distance. Therefore, to prevent excessive fatigue at a distance, special nutrition is necessary. At distances of 15-20 km, you can, especially in hot weather, drink ordinary clean water to prevent blood thickening and decreased performance. For longer runs, it is necessary to consume special nutritional mixtures in the form of drinks.

Table of energy consumption for various types of activities[edit | edit code]

To find out your energy consumption, you need to multiply the coefficient by your weight and the duration of physical activity.

For example, a person weighing 80 kg in 30 minutes. intense aerobics will spend: 0.123 x 80 (kg) x 30 (min) = 295.2 kilos


Mountain bike0.15
bike 20 km/h0.1409
bike 25 km/h0.1759
bike 30 km/h0.211
bike 35+ km/h0.1409
fast dancing1.06
slow dancing0.053
American football0.158
walking in nature0.106
horseback riding0.07
martial arts0.1759
terrain orientation0.158
race walking0.114
mountaineering (climbing)0.194
roller skating0.123
rope jumping0.1759
running 8.5 km/h0.1409
running 10 km/h0.1759
running 15 km/h0.255
running in nature0.158
cross-country skiing0.1409
skiing from the mountains0.106
swimming (general)0.106
fast swimming0.1759
swimming (breaststroke)0.1759
swimming (butterfly)0.194
swimming (crawl)0.194
volleyball (game)0.053
volleyball (competition)0.07
Beach volleyball0.1409
walking 6 km/h0.07
walking 7 km/h0.079
walking 8 km/h0.0879
fast walk0.106
water skiing0.106
water polo0.1759
water volleyball0.053
Labor activitykcal/min*kg
work as a bartender0.0439
work as a carpenter0.062
work as a sports trainer0.07
work as a miner0.106
working at the computer0.024
work as a clerk0.031
work as a fireman0.211
work as a forester0.1409
work as a heavy machine operator0.0439
heavy hand tools0.1409
horse care0.106
office work0.0206
work as a mason0.123
work as a massage therapist0.07
police work0.0439
studying in class0.031
steelworker job0.1409
work as an actor in the theater0.053
truck driver job0.035
Fitness, aerobicskcal/min*kg
light aerobics0.097
aerobics intense0.123
easy step aerobics0.123
step aerobics intensive0.1759
water aerobics0.7
cycling trainer (medium activity)0.123
cycling trainer (high activity)0.185
rhythmic gymnastics (heavy)0.1409
rhythmic gymnastics (easy)0.079
rider-type exercise equipment0.0879
rowing machine (medium activity)0.123
ski simulator0.167
stretching (hatha yoga)0.07
lifting weights0.053
intense weight lifting0.106
Work in the countrykcal/min*kg
gardening (general)0.079
wood chopping0.106
digging holes0.0879
stacking and carrying firewood0.0879
work in the garden (weeding)0.081
laying turf0.0879
working with a lawn mower0.079
planting in the garden0.07
tree planting0.079
rake work0.07
cleaning leaves0.07
manual snow removal0.106
baby care (bathing, feeding)0.062
children's games0.0879
grocery shopping0.062
heavy cleaning0.079
Moving furniture0.106
moving boxes0.123
unpacking boxes0.062
playing with a child (moderate activity)0.07
car repair0.053
carpentry work0.106
furniture repair0.079
drain cleaning0.0879
laying carpet or tiles0.079

Daily energy expenditure

What sport do you like to play? Hiking, swimming, aerobics or water aerobics, cycling or rollerblading, strength exercises? Or maybe you prefer something calmer and more relaxing - yoga or breathing exercises? Or are you attracted to dancing? They are slow and energetic - for every taste, for any age, for any state of mind. The main thing is to choose an activity that will become a source of joy, and to train regularly, that is, at least for an hour at least once or twice a week. This will balance daily energy expenditure and normalize metabolism in the body.

Learn to derive pleasure not from food, but from physical activity. It has been proven that it enhances the production of happiness hormones no worse, but much better, than chocolate and other high-calorie sweets. Mobile people even have a different facial expression: they feel the fullness of life. Food is the most primitive source of positive emotions. Let's not be primitive people!

Sources[edit | edit code]

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